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The Jews in the literature of Dubrovnik

dc.creatorPantić, Miroslav
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-25T09:28:27Z
dc.date.available2019-11-25T09:28:27Z
dc.date.issued1971
dc.identifier.issn0353-0612
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/handle/123456789/90
dc.description.abstractPrvi Jevreji kojt su dospevali u Dubrovnik da obave neki svoj posao ili da za sebe i svoje potraže u njemu trajno stanište, sigurno nisu bili mnogo iznenađeni otkrićem da su pripadnici njihovog naroda na izvestan način već prisutni na dubrovačkim ulicama. To prisustvo bilo je, istina, samo simbolično, i za njih ne osobito časno; stoga mu se nisu mogli ni radovati. Ono je predstavljalo izraz onog raspoloženja koje je Jevreje pratilo gotovo svuda u srednjevekovnom svetu i koje je dodavalo mnogo gorčine njihovoj i inače zlosrećnoj sudbini. Kao i drugde po ondašnjim gradovima, naročito kao u papskom Rimu, i u Gradu koji se dičio zaštitom Svetoga Vlaha bio je običaj da se u toku preduskršnjih i uskršnjih svečanosti, i kao važan njihov deo, priređuju maskerade u kojima se Jevreji izvrgavaju podsmehu i poruzi. Bližih obaveštenja o tome kako su te maskerade u Dubrovniku izgledale na žalost nemamo, ali da humor koji ih je pratio nije imao mnogo finoće i da se poruga koja im je bila cilj nije odlikovala delikatnošću ili osećanjem mere možemo zaključivati i bez oslonca u istorijskim dokumentima. O toj vrsti uskršnjih zabava, omiljenih među starim Dubrovčanima, smemo uostalom suditi i na osnovu samih analogija. U Isto to vreme, a i dugo posle njega, u Rimu su pred Uskrs, na Veliki četvrtak ili na Veliki petak organizovane bučne i šarene povorke s Jevrejima kao nevoljnim protagonistima; one su i Dubrovčanima poslužile kao uzor. Nekoga između svojih sugrađana maskiranog kao Jevrejina, Rimljani su, prema odavno utvrđenom scenariju, stavljali na volujska kola ii vukli ulicama grada, daveći ga, vešajući i uopšte mučeći ga na razne načine; na kraju, umoren nekom sramotnom smrću, “Jevrejin” je bivao prinuđen da u predsmrtnim časovima diktira svoju komičnu oporuku. Sve se to izvodilo uz surovo guranje i komešanje svetine, koja je uživala u čudovišnom kostimu “Jevrejina”, načinjenom od dronjaka i izvrnutih vreća, u nemilosrdnom zlostavlijaniju kome je bio izvrgnut i u nesnosnoj galami koja je pritom dizana zveketom lanaca, lupnjavom doboša i gromkim zvucima truba, u grotesknim i rapavim stihovima “Jevrejinovog” testamenta i u drastičnom spektaklu smrti. Ove ulične predstave, kojima je grubi i prosti puk davao i izvođače i publilku, nazivane su u Rimu džudijatama (giudiata). Etnolozi u njima vide ostatke pradrevnih obreda kojima su smisao i svrha bili eliminisanje i uništenje zla.sr
dc.description.abstractIn the cultural history of Dubrovnik, the Jews make their appearance before their first larger groups settled at Dubrovnik. In the Statutes of this town as well as in the archival documents from the 14th century are mentioned the carnival masquerades, organized in the season preceding the Easter, in which, among other characters, took part also the masks of the Jew (Judaeus). These masks, in all probability, performed a play in which the "Jew" was led through the town, with a lot of rough mockery, to be concluded by the Jew dictating his comical testament before being put to death. Such plays were called giudiata and at Dubrovnik they were realized undoubtedly under the strong influence of the Roman giudiata. On account of frequent riots and serious clashes, they provoked among the inhabitants of Dubrovnik they were many times prohibited by the government. When they arrived in Dubrovnik in a large number and when they founded there their colony, the Jews occupied themselves with the commerce and trades and not with the literature. In the course of subsequent centuries there arose from among them only two writers. The one of them was Didak Pir (or Dr Didak Isaiah Cohen) who came to settle in this town about 1558 and lived in it until his death in 1599. This very learned Jew from Portugal and humanist of world-wide renown, partly published and partly left in manuscript many Latin poems, important both by their literary value and high literary culture on which they are founded; many of them speak of Dubrovnik or individual eminent inhabitants of Dubrovnik. The other writer among the Jews of Dubrovnik was Aaron Cohen, rabbi and merchant, who left theological commentaries, written in Hebrew, on individual books of the Bible, which were posthumously printed in Venice in 1657, under the title Zekan Aron. The Jews of Dubrovnik did not write in Serbo-Croat. On the other hand, the literature of Dubrovnik concerned itself with them. The first Jewish character in this literature was given by Marin Držić in his comedy Dundo Maroje, dating from 1551. This was Sadi Žudio, who is a Jew of Rome and in the comedy only an episodical, but very lively and plastically portrayed character. At the beginning of the 17th century, in 1606, philosopher and nobleman Nikola Vidov Gučetić (1549— 1610) delivered, in the Cathedral of Dubrovnik, three lectures against the Jews (Tre lezioni contro li Ebrei) in which he polemized, before a Jewish audience, with some Jewish beliefs; these lectures of his are now preserved in manuscript in the Vatican library. In the comedies of Dubrovnik from the second half of the 17th century are mentioned individual Jews or their characters appear among other characters; some of them are drawn from life, while the others are a product of fiction. Sometimes these characters are nice, industrious and business-like (in comedies Džono Funkjelica and Starac Klimoje), some other time they are hawkers and peddlers, deceived by their customers (Pijero Muzuvijer) and in other cases, again, they are usurers and comical lovers whose passions are rudely scoffed at (Jerko škripalo). In the comedy Sin vjerenik jedne matere, dating from 1683, is being caricatured, with a strong anti-Jewish feeling, the circumcision rite. In the same or similar way are presented the Jews also in the adaptations of Mofičre’s comedies which were made and performed at Dubrovnik in the first half of the 18th century (Džono aliti gos, Lakomac and others). In the end, the author deals with theatrical and musical performances which were organized in the18th century in Jewish houses in the Ghetto. In 1752 was there performed a comedy and among its spectators, there were also some Christians and in 1793 the Italian singers and musicians in collaboration with some players from Dubrovnik performed an opera in the Ghetto. Finally, in .1800, the government prohibited to the Christians, threatening them with severe punishments, to be present, during the Lent, ad festa vulgo di ballo Hebraeorum vel comedias et alia spectacula which had also to take place in the Ghetto.en
dc.language.isosrsr
dc.publisherBeograd : Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije [Federation of Jewish Communitues in Jugoslavia]sr
dc.rightsopenAccesssr
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.sourceZbornik 1 : Studije i građa o Jevrejima Dubrovnika, Jevrejski istorijski muzej - Beograd = Jewish studies 1 : Studies and documents about Jews in Dubrovnik, Jewish historical museum - Belgradesr
dc.subjectJevreji - književnost - Dubrovniksr
dc.subjectantisemitizam u književnosti - Dubrovniksr
dc.subjectJevreji Dubrovnikasr
dc.subjectJews - literature - Dubrovniksr
dc.subjectantisemitism in the literature - Dubrovniksr
dc.subjectđuidatasr
dc.subjectgiudiatasr
dc.subjectDidak Pirsr
dc.subjectDidak Isaiah Cohensr
dc.subjectDidak Isaija Koensr
dc.subjectAron Cohen, writer, rabbisr
dc.subjectAron Koen, pisac, rabinsr
dc.subjectZekan Aronsr
dc.subjectSadi Žudiosr
dc.titleJevreji u dubrovačkoj književnostisr
dc.titleThe Jews in the literature of Dubrovniken
dc.typearticlesr
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-NDsr
dcterms.abstractПантић, Мирослав; Јевреји у дубровачкој књижевности; Јевреји у дубровачкој књижевности;
dcterms.abstractПантић, Мирослав; Јевреји у дубровачкој књижевности; Јевреји у дубровачкој књижевности;
dc.rights.holderSavez jevrejskih opština Srbije = Federation of Jewish Communities of Serbiasr
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/bitstream/id/138/JIM0111MIROSLAVPANTICJEVREJIUDUBROVACKOJKNJIZEVNOSTI.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionsr
dc.citation.spage211
dc.citation.epage238
dc.citation.volume1


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