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The Role of Jews in the Opening and Development of Kučajna and Majdanpek Mines in the Second Half of the 16th Century

dc.contributorRistović, Milan
dc.contributorStojanović, Dubravka
dc.contributorJovanović, Miroslav
dc.creatorKatić, Srđan
dc.description.abstractTema rada je otvaranje i razvoj rudnika Kučajna i Majdanpek u drugoj polovini XVI veka. Posebna pažnja posvećena je jevrejskoj zajednici koja je posle perioda državne uprave uložila kapital u rudarsku proizvodnju i znatno je
dc.description.abstractAfter the Turkish conquest of the Despotate in 1459, the Kučevo area was for almost a century the frontier area exposed to incursions by the Hungarians. Conditions for mining in Kučevo were created only after the conquest of Banat 1551-1552 and the northward shifting of the border. The Kučajna mine was opened already in 1553, and Majdanpek in 1559. A coin mint and a foundry for the production of ammunition were built in Kučajna in addition to the mine. The place became the seat of the qadi district, and security was provided by the fort crew and a unit of martolos. Within a few years, Kučajna developed into a city where a community of Jews was established as well. They moved there during the preparations for the opening of the mine and over the next three decades their number kept increasing. In addition to financial matters, Jews also engaged in professional mining occupations and crafts. After the period of state administration, Kučajna and Majdanpek mines have been leased out. The first lessees of Kučajna were Turks. However, the first three-year lease for Majdanpek took a Jew, one Akiba, in 1564, who also worked as the chief scribe of the mine. Akiba ran into financial difficulties and as the result lost the lease after less than two years. The lessee of Kučajna, Dervish Ali, took over Majdanpek as well, and after a year unified both mines into the same mukata, for which a three-year lease was 1.3 million akche. During the time of his administration, production of gold and silver in Kučajna and copper in Majdanpek was declining, so the state took over again the administration of the mines in 1569. It appointed a mining expert Hussein as the manager. He managed to consolidate the mines and already in 1570 they were offered a new lease. Former lessee Akiba, the Jew, appeared as a bidder for the contract, offering 1.5 million akche together with his partner Ahmed. However, Akiba did not manage to get the contract, because a competitive bid from a Jewish joint stock company, managed by one Papo, exceeded his by 700,000 akche. During its period of lease Jews assumed almost all administrative posts, such as those of emin and the chief scribe, and also started to perform the tasks of the saffar. Owing to the success of the production, for the first time since the founding of Kučajna and Majdanpek the lease was renewed for the same lessee in 1573. Papo and his companions continued to invest in the production and consequently, for example, in the first year of the new lease, 208 tons of copper, 46% more than the preceding year, were produced in Majdanpek while a new copper mine was opened the next year. Jews obtained the subsequent leases and their domination was for the first time questioned at the time of economic crisis in the 1580s and during the Long War (1593-1606).sr
dc.publisherBeograd : Filozofski fakultet, Odeljenje za istorijusr
dc.sourceGodišnjak za društvenu istorijusr
dc.subjectrudnik Kučajna - uloga Jevrejasr
dc.subjectrudnik Majdanpek - uloga Jevrejasr
dc.subjectKučajna mine - role of Jewssr
dc.subjectMajdanpek mine - role of Jewssr
dc.titleUloga Jevreja u otvaranju i razvoju rudnika Kučajna i Majdanpek u drugoj polovini XVI vekasr
dc.titleThe Role of Jews in the Opening and Development of Kučajna and Majdanpek Mines in the Second Half of the 16th Centurysr
dc.description.otherStudije (Essays).sr

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