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Christian experts of the Talmud

dc.contributorFischer, Leopold
dc.creatorSteiner, Vilim
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-10T17:40:20Z
dc.date.available2021-03-10T17:40:20Z
dc.date.issued1929
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/handle/123456789/1689
dc.description.abstractNadrabin dr Vilim Steiner u radu o hrišćanskim poznavaocima Talmuda opisuje veliki verski preobražaj koji je pokrenuo Martin Luter (1483-1546), osnivač hrišćanske protestantske crkve u Nemačkoj i predvodnik reformacije. Reformatorski pokret započeo je prevođenjem Biblije na živi nemački jezik. Do tada je u crkvenim krugovima Biblija postojala samo u latinskom i grčkom prevodu a njeno čitanje je za običan hrišćanski svet bilo pod crkvenom zabranom. Mnogo vekova je katolička crkva zabranjivala, da se Biblija prevede na bilo koji živi jezik. Luter je ispovedao da vera treba da se zasniva na Bibliji i da je originalni hebrejski tekst autentičan. Ovaj preporod imao je uticaj i na jevrejstvo jer su jedini živi poznavaoci i predstavnici hebrejske Biblije bili Jevreji. Obaranjem crkvene tiranije donekle je popravljen i položaj Jevreja jer je prestala brutalnost srednjevekovne mržnje ali su Jevreji i dalje lišeni građanskih prava. Tek na kraju XVII i početkom XVIII veka jevrejstvo se počelo oslobađati i napredovati pod vlašću Fridriha Vilhelma. Dr Steiner se ukratko osvrće na različite žargone koje su Jevreji širom Evrope koristili u talmudskoj književnosti. Prekid sa arapskom kulturom i pojava nemačkog filozofa i jevrejskog prosvetitelja Mozesa Mendelsona (1729-1786), obeležila je povratak klasičnom hebrejskom jeziku. Dr Steiner u tekstu prati tok reformacije kroz preporod i prihvatanje hebrejskog jezika kao nauke, prevođenje Biblije i drugih dela iz jevrejske religije i književnosti i sticanje građanskih prava. Posebno ističe rad Jovana Reuchlin-a (1455-1522) koji je napisao delo "O reči koja izaziva divljenje" koje je prava himna hebrejskom jeziku. Reuchlin je takođe je kao jedini hrišćanin u čitavoj Evropi koji se u to vreme bavio hebrejskim jezikom, 1506. godine izradio prvu hebrejsku gramatiku sa rečnikom „Rudimenta hebraica“. Ovo delo je imalo znatan uticaj na humaniste koji su se počeli zanimati za hebrejski jezik. I sam Luter je učio hebrejski kako bi temeljno mogao izučavati Bibliju. Želja za upoznavanjem sa jevrejskom naukom bila je najočiglednija u Francuskoj. Pariski univerzitet koji je na lomači spalio Reuchlinovu knjigu "Augenspiegel" (Naočale) koja je zagovarala Talmud i hebrejski jezik, samo šest godina kasnije osnovao je katedru za hebrejski jezik i hebrejsku štampariju. Čak je na ovoj katedri radio i Eli Levit (Elija ben Ašer Halevi, 1409-1549), čuveni gramatičar iz Nemačke koji je hrišćanima predavao hebrejski jezik i književnost, što je ranije bilo nezamislivo. Dr Steiner navodi razne konkretne primere: Elija Levit preveo je Bibliju na nemački; maranos Duante de Pinel (Abraham Usque) na španski; Bomberg Daniel, vlasnik hrišćanske štamparije, štampao je Stari zavet sa komentarima i drugim tumačenjima; hrišćanski naučnik, protestant iz Amsterdama, Vilim Surenhuys više godina je prevodio Mišnu na latinski jezik; Jakob Bosnage, veliki protestantski bogoslov, napisao je delo u 5 tomova pod nazivom "Historia Judaica" koje je svojim temeljnim istorijskim znanjem učinilo veliku uslugu jevrejstvu. Prevođenjem Biblije, izučavanjem hebrejskog jezika, nauke i književnosti bavili su se i mnogi drugi nejevrejski naučnici koji su dali veliki doprinos u njihovom istraživanju i popularisanju.sr
dc.description.abstractIn his work on Christian experts of the Talmud, senior rabbi Dr. William Steiner describes the great religious transformation initiated by Martin Luther (1483-1546), the founder of the Christian Protestant Church in Germany and the leader of the Reformation. The reform movement began with the translation of the Bible into living German. Until then, the Bible existed in church circles only in Latin and Greek translations, and its reading was banned by the church for the ordinary Christian world. For many centuries, the Catholic Church forbade the translation of the Bible into any living language. Luther confessed that faith should be based on the Bible and that the original Hebrew text is authentic. This revival also had an impact on Judaism because the only living experts and representatives of the Hebrew Bible were the Jews. By overthrowing the church tyranny, the position of the Jews was somewhat improved, because the brutality of medieval hatred stopped, but the Jews were still deprived of their civil rights. It was not until the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century that Judaism began to be liberated and prospered under the rule of Friedrich William. Dr. Steiner briefly looks at the various jargon used by Jews across Europe in Talmudic literature. The break with Arab culture and the appearance of the German philosopher and Jewish educator Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) marked a return to classical Hebrew. In the text, Dr. Steiner follows the course of the Reformation through the revival and acceptance of the Hebrew language as a science, the translation of the Bible and other works from the Jewish religion and literature, and the acquisition of civil rights. The work of Jovan Reuchlin (1455-1522), who wrote the book "On the word that causes admiration", which is the real hymn in the Hebrew language, is especially noteworthy. Also, as the only Christian in the whole of Europe who was dealing with the Hebrew language at that time, in 1506 he wrote the first Hebrew grammar with the dictionary "Rudimenta Hebraica". This work had a significant impact on humanists who began to take an interest in the Hebrew language. Luther himself studied Hebrew so that he could study the Bible thoroughly. The desire to get acquainted with Jewish science was most obvious in France. The University of Paris, which burned Reuchlin's book "Augenspiegel" (Glasses) at the stake, which advocated the Talmud and the Hebrew language, only six years later founded the Department of the Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Printing House. Eli Levitt (Elijah ben Asher Halevi, 1409-1549), a famous grammarian from Germany who taught Hebrew language and literature to Christians, which was almost unthinkable before, even worked at this department. Dr. Steiner cites various positive examples: Elijah Levitt translated the Bible into German; Marranos Duante de Pinel (Abraham Usque) in Spanish; Bomberg Daniel, the owner of a Christian printing press, printed the Old Testament with commentaries and other interpretations; a Christian scholar, a Protestant from Amsterdam, William Surenhuys translated the Mishnah into Latin for many years; Jakob Bosnage, a great Protestant theologian, wrote a work in 5 volumes entitled "Historia Judaica" which, with its fundamental historical knowledge, did a great service to Judaism. Many other non-Jewish scholars have been involved in translating the Bible, studying the Hebrew language, science, and literature, and have made great contributions to their research and popularization.sr
dc.language.isoshsr
dc.publisherVršac : Savez rabina Kraljevine S. H. S.sr
dc.rightsopenAccesssr
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/cc0/
dc.sourceJevrejski almanah za godinu 5690 (1929/30)sr
dc.subjectTalmud - hrišćanstvosr
dc.subjectTalmud - Christianitysr
dc.subjectTalmud - prevodisr
dc.subjectTalmud - translationssr
dc.subjectMartin Luter (1483-1546) - reformatorski pokretsr
dc.titleHrišćanski poznavaoci Talmudasr
dc.titleChristian experts of the Talmudsr
dc.typearticlesr
dc.rights.licenseCC0sr
dcterms.abstractСтеинер, Вилим; Хришћански познаваоци Талмуда; Хришћански познаваоци Талмуда;
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/bitstream/id/5310/JAL5690HriscanskiPoznavaociTalmudaOCR.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionsr
dc.citation.spage56
dc.citation.epage64
dc.citation.volume5


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