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Jewish schools in Belgrade prior to 1941

dc.creatorRakić, Vesna
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-09T11:42:13Z
dc.date.available2019-12-09T11:42:13Z
dc.date.issued1992
dc.identifier.issn0353-0612
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/handle/123456789/158
dc.description.abstractRad sadrži deset poglavlja koja predstavljaju razvoj jevrejskih škola u Beogradu od 1818. godine do početka Drugog svetskog rata. U vreme Miloša Obrenovića, posle Drugog srpskog ustanka, sefardski Jevreji bili su među prvim stranim državljanima Srbije koji su 1818. godine izgradili osnovnu školu u Beogradu. Učenici su učili španski jezik i izučavali špansku literaturu. Povoljne društveno-političke okolnosti bile su donošenje Hatišerifa 1830. godine, koji je garantovao ravnopravnost Jevreja sa ostalim građanima Srbije, a posle toga i opšti kulturni napredak za vreme Ustavobraniteljske vlade, kada je stvoren čvrst temelj za razvoj obrazovnog sistema a time i mogućnosti za obrazovanje jevrejske dece, iako je u to vreme školovanje bilo ograničeno na mušku decu i bilo je na španskom. Prva jevrejska škola u potpunosti je finansirana donacijama sve do 1847. godine kada je osnovan "Školski fond" i školovanje prešlo u nadležnost jevrejske sefardske zajednice. Dolazak Aškenaza tokom treće decenije XIX veka i njihovo prilagođavanje kulturno različitim Sefardima doneli su brojne probleme, čak i zvanične pritužbe. Prema arhivskim izvorima za utvrđivanje stanja u sefardskoj školi u tom periodu, karakterističan je prilično zastareli obrazovni program zasnovan samo na religijskom učenju. Međutim, u istom periodu značajno je bilo otvaranje Državne štamparije, gde su objavljivane ne samo jevrejske verske knjige, već i školski udžbenici. Međutim, najvažniji period u razvoju jevrejskog školstva počinje 60-ih godina XIX veka kada je u Srbiji donesen Zakon o školskom sistemu kroz koji su se poboljšali opšti uslovi rada i kada je nova školska zgrada sefardske zajednice - Mildar, izgrađena na Jaliji. To je bio početak reorganizacije i modernizacije obrazovnog programa u sefardskoj školi i koordinacije sa školskim sistemom u srpskim školama. Takođe je dovelo do uključivanja ove škole u državni školski sistem, a samim tim i do mogućnosti za širi spektar izbora u obrazovanju jevrejske omladine, a takođe je podiglo i opšti nivo obrazovanja. Otvorene su i jevrejske škole za žensku decu, što je u dogledno vreme uticalo na način života mnogih jevrejskih žena. Kraj XIX i početak XX veka obeležili su širenje jevrejskog stanovništva sa Jalije u druge delove Beograda, intenzivnijim prilagođavanjem i uključivanjem u srpsko društvo, šire prihvatanje jezika okoline i obrazovanja jevrejske dece u srpskim školama, iako je u jevrejskoj školi verska nastava i dalje postojala kako bi se očuvao nacionalni identitet. Opšte unapređenje školstva napredovalo je sa osnivanjem Društvene škole za obrazovanje srpsko-jevrejske omladine (Građanska škola za obrazovanje srpske i jevrejske omladine); ono je nastavljeno razvojem obrazovnih programa osnivanjem Ženske radeničke škole jevrejskog društva 1919. godine, kasnije Ženske zanatske i izgradnjom nove škole 1927. i novog Opštinskog doma (Dom zajednice) u kojem se održavala veronauka. Takođe postoje mnogobrojni podaci o broju osnovnih i srednjih škola u Beogradu tokom 30-ih godina i o relevantnim obrazovnim predmetima. U vreme profašističke vlade Cvetković-Maček, školska godina 1939/40. bila je sramotno obeležena anti-jevrejskim merama koje su se odnosile i na školovanje. Jevrejska zajednica je zbog tih mera, uspela da organizuje Jevrejsku gimnaziju sa obrazovnim programom koji je odgovarao onom u drugim gimnazijama; ova škola je bila aktivna do početka Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji.sr
dc.description.abstractThe paper contains 10 consecutive chapters which present the development of Jewish schools in Belgrade since 1818 till the beginning of World War Two. In the time of Milos Obrenović, after the II Serbian Uprising, Sephardim Jews were the first among the foreign citizens of Serbia who have built a primary school in Belgrade in 1818. The pupils were taught in Spanish and Spanish literature was included in the programme. The favourable sociopolitical circumstances were the passing of the Hatisheriff in 1830 which guarantied the Jewish equality with the other Serbian citizens and after that the general cultural progress under the pro-constitutional government, so that has created the solid foundation for the development of the educational system and thus the possibilities for the education of Jewish children, although at that time the schooling was limited to the male children and was in Spanish. The first Jewish school was entirely financed by donations until 1847 when "The School Fund" was established and the schooling came under the responsibility of the Jewish Sephardic community. The arrival of the Ashkenazim during the third decade of the XIX century and their adjustment to the culturally different Sephardim have brought about numerous problems, even the official complaints, and these were the archive sources to ascertain the state of the Sephardic school in that period, characterized by rather obsolete educational programme based only on the religious teachings; however, in the same period significant was the opening of Državna štamparija (The State Printing House) where were published not only the Jewish religious books but also the school textbooks. However, the most important period in the development of Jewish schooling begins in the 60-ies of the XIX century when in Serbia was passed the Law on the Schooling System through which the general working conditions had improved and when the new school building of the Sephardic community - so-called Mlldar - was built on Jalija. It was the beginning of reorganization and modernization of the educational programme in the Sephardic school and thereby the coordination with the schooling system of the Serbian schools. This has brought about the incorporation into the state schooling system and thus the possibilities for the wider range of choices in the education of Jewish youth and has also raised the general level of education. The Jewish schools for female children were also opened and that has in due time influenced the way of life for many Jewish women. The end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century were marked by the expansion of the Jewish population from Jalija to other parts of Belgrade, intensified adaptation and incorporation into Serbian society, wider acceptance of the environment’s language end Jewish children’s education in Serbian schools, though the religious teaching was still held in the Jewish school aimed at the preservation of the national identity. The general improvement of schooling was advanced by the establishing of Društvena škola za izobražavanje srpsko-jevrejske omladine (Civic school for the Education of Serbian and Jewish Youth); this was continued through the development of educational programmes, by the founding of Ženska radenička škola jevrejskog društva (Women Labourer School of the Jewish Women Society) in 1919 /later Ženska zanatska ... (Women Trader...), and building of the new school in 1927 and new Opštinski dom (Community House) where the religious teaching was held. There is also extensive data on the number of primary and secondary schools in Belgrade during the 30-ies and on the relevant educational subjects. Under the pro-fascist Cvetković-Maček government the school year 1939/40 was dismally marked by some anti-Jewish measures which also pertained to schooling. The Jewish community has accordingly managed to organize Jevrejska gimnazija (The Jewish Gymnasium) with the educational programme corresponding to those in other gymnasiums; this school was active till the beginning of World War II in Yugoslavia.en
dc.language.isosrsr
dc.publisherBeograd : Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije [Federation of Jewish Communitues in Jugoslavia]sr
dc.rightsopenAccesssr
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.sourceZbornik 6 : Studije, arhivska i memoarska građa o istoriji beogradskih Jevreja, Jevrejski istorijski muzej - Beograd = Jewish studies 6 : Studies, archival and memorial materials about the history of the Jews in Belgrade, Jewish historical museum - Belgradesr
dc.subjectjevrejske škole - Beogradsr
dc.subjectDruštvena škola za izobražavanje srpsko-jevrejske omladine (Beograd)sr
dc.subjectMildar (Beograd)sr
dc.subjectDržavna štamparija - jevrejsko odeljenje (1837)sr
dc.subjectŽenska radenička škola jevrejskog ženskog društva (Beograd)sr
dc.subjectJewish schools - Belgrade
dc.titleJevrejske škole u Beogradu do 1941. godinesr
dc.titleJewish schools in Belgrade prior to 1941en
dc.typearticlesr
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-NDsr
dcterms.abstractРакић, Весна; Јеврејске школе у Београду до 1941. године; Јеврејске школе у Београду до 1941. године;
dcterms.abstractРакић, Весна; Јеврејске школе у Београду до 1941. године; Јеврејске школе у Београду до 1941. године;
dc.rights.holderSavez jevrejskih opština Srbije = Federation of Jewish Communities of Serbiasr
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/bitstream/id/306/JIM0612VESNARAKICJEVREJSKESKOLEUBEOGRADUDO1941.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionsr
dc.citation.spage326
dc.citation.epage358
dc.citation.issue6


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