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Vienna Gezeirah from 1421

dc.contributorFischer, Leopold
dc.creatorSchulsinger, Hinko (Heinrich)
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-31T14:31:24Z
dc.date.available2021-01-31T14:31:24Z
dc.date.issued1926
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/handle/123456789/1582
dc.description.abstractRabin dr Hinko Schulsinger u članku o bečkoj Gezeri opisuje događaj iz 1421. godine koji je odredio dalju sudbinu jevrejskog stanovništa Austrije. Gezera je uredba koju su ustanovili rabini kako bi sprečili ljude da nenamerno krše zapovesti Tore. U prenesenom značenju reč „Gezera“ znači zla kob, pogibelj, progon. Pod Bečkom Gezerom podrazumeva se teror nad Jevrejima iz 1420 i 1421. godine. U tom periodu jevrejsko stanovništvo je spaljivano na lomačama, razoren je bečki jevrejski grad i progonani Jevreji iz čitave Austrije. Hrišćanski svet koji je ubijanjem, spaljivanjem i progonima pokazivao svoju nadmoć nad Jevrejima bio je ravnodušan. Čak ni istorijski izvori nisu posvetili dovoljno pažnje ovom zločinu. Zbog toga je zasad jedini jevrejski izvor, koji nas najbliže upoznaje sa detaljima ove jevrejske tragedije, opis jednog proteranog stradalnika iz Austrije koji je štampan u trećem poglavlju „Bečke Gezere“ (Goldmann, Krauss). Istorija ove gezere može se, na osnovu ovog izvora, podeliti na tri faze. Prva faza bila je proterivanje Jevreja iz Austrije, druga se odnosila na konfiskovanje imovine i nasilno pokrštavanje mladića i devojaka mlađih od 15 godina. Treću fazu činilo je nasilno pokrštavanje dece čiji su roditelji izvršili kolektivno samoubistvo jer nisu imali snage da prisustvuju tom nedopustivom činu. Jevreji koji su bili zatočeni u tamnicama toliko su bili očajni da su se radije odlučili na smrt nego na neizvesnu sudbinu. Zbog toga su 12. marta 1421. godine odvedeni na Erdberšku livadu kod Dunava i spaljeni na lomači. Nakon ovih tragičnih događaja bečki jevrejski grad i njegova sinagoga su uništeni a preživeli Jevreji prognani iz Beča i Austrije. Znatan deo otišao je u Ugarsku i Moravsku gde gde su i dalje proganjani. Treći deo uputio se prema Jugu i većinom se naselio u Italiji. Jedan deo se nastanio u Štajerskoj, Koruškoj i Kranjskoj, gde je ostao sve do 1496. godine, kada je Maksimilijan I. prognao Jevreje iz ovih zemalja. Zbog navedenih događanja dr Schulsinger naglašava da ovaj članak ima naročit značaj jer opisuje događaje koji se odnose na jevrejsko stanovništvo susedne zemlje i bitno je uticao na pravni i privredni život Jevreja na našim prostorima. Posebno je važan zbog toga što je u najtešnjoj vezi sa istorijom Jevreja iz Slovenije, koja je bila sastavni deo Kraljevine SHS.sr
dc.description.abstractRabbi Dr. Hinko Schulsinger in an article on Vienna's Gezeirah describes an event from 1421 that determined the further fate of the Jewish population of Austria. Gezeirah is a decree established by the rabbis to prevent people from inadvertently violating the Torah's commandments. In a figurative sense, the word Gezeirah means evil fate, perdition, persecution. Vienna Gezeirah means terror against Jews from 1420 and 1421. During that period, the Jewish population was burned at the bonfire, the Viennese Jewish city was destroyed and Jews from all over Austria were persecuted. The Christian world, which showed its superiority over the Jews by killing, burning, and persecution, was indifferent. Even historical sources have not paid enough attention to this crime. Therefore, for the time being, the only Jewish source that acquaints us most closely with the details of this Jewish tragedy is the description of an exiled victim from Austria, which was published in the third chapter of the "Vienna Gezeirah" (Goldmann, Krauss). The history of this Gezeirah can be, based on this source, divided into three phases. The first phase was the expulsion of Jews from Austria, the second concerned the confiscation of property and the violent baptizing of young men and women under the age of 15. The third phase consisted of the violent baptizing of children whose parents committed collective suicide because they did not have the strength to attend the inadmissible act. The Jews imprisoned in the dungeons were so desperate that they chose death rather than uncertain fate. Because of that, on March 12, 1421, they were taken to the Erdberg meadow near the Danube and burned at the bonfire. After these tragic events, the Viennese Jewish city and its synagogue were destroyed and the surviving Jews were expelled from Vienna and Austria. A significant part went to Hungary and Moravia, where they were still persecuted. The third part headed south and mostly settled in Italy. One part settled in Štajerska, Koruška, and Kranjska, where it remained until 1496 when Maximilian I expelled Jews from these countries. Due to the mentioned events, Dr. Schulsinger emphasizes that this article is of special importance because it describes the events that refer to the Jewish population of the neighboring country and has significantly influenced the legal and economic life of Jews in our area. It is especially important because it has the closest connection with the history of Jews from Slovenia, which was an integral part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.sr
dc.language.isoshsr
dc.language.isodesr
dc.publisherVršac : Savez rabina Kraljevine S. H. S.sr
dc.rightsopenAccesssr
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/cc0/
dc.sourceJevrejski almanah za godinu 5687 (1926/27)sr
dc.subjectgezerasr
dc.subjectGezeirahsr
dc.subjectgezera - Beč (1420-1421)sr
dc.subjectGezeirah - Vienna (1420-1421)sr
dc.subjectJevreji - pogromisr
dc.subjectJews - pogromssr
dc.subjectJevreji - nasilno pokrštavanjesr
dc.subjectJews - violent baptismsr
dc.titleBečka Gezera iz 1421. godinesr
dc.titleVienna Gezeirah from 1421sr
dc.typearticlesr
dc.rights.licenseCC0sr
dcterms.abstractСцхулсингер, Хеинрицх; Бечка Гезера из 1421. године; Бечка Гезера из 1421. године; Виенна Гезеирах фром 1421; Виенна Гезеирах фром 1421;
dcterms.abstractСцхулсингер, Хинко (Хеинрицх); Бечка Гезера из 1421. године; Бечка Гезера из 1421. године; Виенна Гезеирах фром 1421; Виенна Гезеирах фром 1421;
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/bitstream/id/4978/JAL5687BeckaGezeraOCR.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionsr
dc.citation.spage54
dc.citation.epage66
dc.citation.volume2
dc.description.otherHeinrich Schulsinger (1887-1944) bio je đakovački rabin. Po uspostavi Nezavisne države Hrvatske uhvaćen je i deportovan u Aušvic, gdje je ubijen.sr
dc.description.otherHeinrich Schulsinger (1887-1944) was a rabbi of Djakovo. After the establishment of the Independent State of Croatia, he was captured and deported to Auschwitz, where he was killed.


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