Show simple item record

Jewish books printed in Belgrade: contributions to the cultural life of Belgrade Jews in the last century

dc.contributorFischer, Leopold
dc.contributorMargel, Mojsije
dc.creatorAlkalaj, Isak
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-17T21:28:28Z
dc.date.available2021-01-17T21:28:28Z
dc.date.issued1925
dc.identifier.urihttp://www.jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/handle/123456789/1553
dc.description.abstractDr Isak Alkalaj u radu "Jevrejske knjige štampane u Beogradu" daje iscrpnu analizu kulturnog života Jevreja pre, za vreme i nakon nastanka prvih štampanih knjiga i prvih štamparija u Beogradu. U kratkom istorijskom pregledu Alkalaj navodi da su u duhovnom i verskom pogledu beogradski Jevreji zavisili od Soluna, iako je u nekoliko mahova Beograd sa svojim verskim predstavnicima bio na zavidnoj visini. U okviru zajednice beogradskih Jevreja radili su zaslužni rabini i naučnici, pisali knjige i blagotovorno uticali ne samo na lokalne nego i na ostale balkanske Jevreje. To su bili pioniri nauke i religije koji su školovani u inistranstvu i koji su svoju ulogu i zadatak shvatali kao najvažniju misiju. Iako su u to vreme Jevreji u Srbiji doživljavali ekonomski progres, njihov kulturni razvitak teško bi se mogao ostvariti bez rabina. I. Alkalaj pominje nekoliko najzaslužnijih i najuglednijih rabina: Juda Lerma, Josef Almuznino, Solomon Šalem i Josef Finci. Oni su, kao beogradski rabini, pisali verske knjige i bili književnici, naučnici i prosvetitelji skromnijih razmera ali zaslužni i spremni za doba u kome su živeli i delali. Kao čuvari vere i tradicije težili su da sačuvaju ono što su nasledili od predaka i odlučili da štampaju najpotrebnije jevrejske knjige. Kako je Beograd, početkom 19. veka bio bez jevrejske štamparije beogradski Jevreji odlaze u Beč da štampaju potrebne religiozne knjige. Sa kulturnim napretkom mlade kneževine Srbije za vladavine kneza Miloša, uporedo su napredovali i beogradski Jevreji. Bili su dobro organizovani u svojoj zajednici i zajedno sa rabinima težili da očuvaju svoje običaje, da stiču i pribave sva ona znanja koja su potrebna pobožnim i svesnim Jevrejima. Godina 1837. je jedna od veoma važnih u istoriji beogradskih Jevreja jer su te godine dobili svoju prvu jevrejsku štampariju i od tada ne prestaju štampati i izdavati jevrejske knjige. Jevrejska štamparija u Beogradu postala je ubrzo na glasu, pa su i pisci iz Bosne, Bugarske i Turske dolazili u Beograd da štampaju svoja dela. Tako Beograd postaje pravi prosvetni centar ne samo za Jevreje u Kneževini već i za Jevreje svih okolnih oblasti. Od 1837 do 1904. godine štampano je 59 knjiga koje je dr Alkalaj bibliografski pobrojao i opisao u ovom radu. Nakon ovog popisa sledi i detaljna analiza o izboru knjiga za štampanje, tehničkim poslovima, tipografima, tiražu i sl. Poseban deo odnosi se na donatore (dobrotvore) koji su svojim prilozima pomagali izdavačku delatnost. Alkalaj napominje da su zbog ove okolnosti mnoga imena pojedinaca i uglednih porodica sačuvana od zaborava i navodi njihova imena. U zaključnom delu konstatuje da je izdavanje jevrejskih i jevrejsko-španskih knjiga trajalo sve do prvih godina prošloga veka, kada se već vidno osećao uticaj nove kulture i novih ideja. Mlada srpska država brzo je napredovala želeći da postigne sve ono u čemu je zaostala. Patrijarhalni život počeo se gubiti i Jevreji, do tada odvojeno vaspitavani, izašli su iz geta i postali deo srpskog društva. Sa školovanjem sve većeg broja jevrejske dece u srpskim školama širio se i srpski jezik koji je već ulazio u jevrejske domove. Srpskim jezikom uskoro se počelo govoriti i pisati i od tada se više nisu štampale jevrejske knjige.sr
dc.description.abstractDr. Isak Alkalaj in his work "Jewish books printed in Belgrade" gives an exhaustive analysis of the cultural life of Jews before, during, and after the appearance of the first printed books and the first printing houses in Belgrade. In a brief historical review, Alkalaj states that spiritually and religiously, the Jews of Belgrade depended on Thessaloniki, although on several occasions Belgrade was at an enviable height in terms of its religious representatives. Within the community of Belgrade Jews, deserving rabbis and scientists worked, wrote books, and had a beneficial influence not only on local but also on other Balkan Jews. These were pioneers of science and religion who were educated abroad and who understood their role and task as the most important mission. Although Jews in Serbia were experiencing economic progress at the time, their cultural development could hardly have been achieved without the rabbis. Dr. Alkalaj mentions several of the most deserving and distinguished rabbis: Juda Lerma, Josef Almuznino, Solomon Shalem, and Josef Finci. They, like Belgrade rabbis, wrote religious books and were writers, scientists, and educators of modest proportions, but deserving and ready for the age in which they lived and worked. As guardians of religion and tradition, they strived to preserve what they inherited from their ancestors and decided to print the most necessary Jewish books. As Belgrade was without a Jewish printing house at the beginning of the 19th century, Belgrade Jews went to Vienna to print the necessary religious books. With the cultural progress of the young principality of Serbia during the reign of Prince Miloš, the Jews of Belgrade also progressed. They were well organized in their community and, together with the rabbis, sought to preserve their customs, to acquire all the knowledge that religious and conscious Jews needed. The year 1837 is one of the most important in the history of Belgrade Jews because in that year they got their first Jewish printing house and since then they have not stopped printing and publishing Jewish books. The Jewish printing house in Belgrade soon became famous, so writers from Bosnia, Bulgaria, and Turkey came to Belgrade to print their works. Thus, Belgrade became a real educational center not only for the Jews in the principality, but also for the Jews of all the surrounding areas. From 1837 to 1904, 59 books were printed, which Alkalaj bibliographically listed and described in this paper. This list is followed by a detailed analysis of the selection of books for printing, technical work, typographers, circulation, etc. A special part refers to donors (benefactors) who helped the publishing with their contributions. Alkalaj notes that due to this circumstance, many names of individuals and respectable families have been preserved from oblivion and cites their names. In the concluding part, he states that the publishing of Jewish and Judeo-Spanish books lasted until the first years of the last century when the influence of a new culture and new ideas was already clearly felt. The young Serbian state progressed quickly, wanting to achieve everything it lagged behind. Patriarchal life began to be lost and the Jews, who had been brought up separately until then, came out of the ghetto and became part of Serbian society. With the education and increasing number of Jewish children in Serbian schools, the Serbian language spread and already entered Jewish homes. The Serbian language soon began to be spoken and written, and since then Jewish books have not been printed.sr
dc.language.isoshsr
dc.publisherVršac : Savez rabina Kraljevine S. H. S.sr
dc.rightsopenAccesssr
dc.sourceJevrejski almanah za godinu 5686 (1925-1926)sr
dc.subjectjevrejske knjige - Beogradsr
dc.subjectJewish books - Belgradesr
dc.subjectjevrejska kultura - Beogradsr
dc.subjectjewsih culure - Belgradesr
dc.subjectjevrejska štampa - Beogradsr
dc.subjectJewish press - Belgradesr
dc.titleJevrejske knjige štampane u Beogradu: prilozi za kulturni život beogradskih Jevreja u prošlom vekusr
dc.titleJewish books printed in Belgrade: contributions to the cultural life of Belgrade Jews in the last centurysr
dc.typearticlesr
dc.rights.licenseCC0sr
dcterms.abstractAлкалај, Исак; Јеврејске књиге штампане у Београду: прилози за културни живот београдских Јевреја у прошлом веку; Јеврејске књиге штампане у Београду: прилози за културни живот београдских Јевреја у прошлом веку;
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/bitstream/id/4889/JAL5686JevrejskeKnjigeStampaneUBeograduOCR.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionsr
dc.citation.spage132
dc.citation.epage144
dc.citation.volume1


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record