Jevreji - graditelji Beograda do 1941. godine
Jews - builders of Belgrade prior to 1941
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Prva dokumenta o ovoj temi otkrili smo u arhivi planova beogradskih zgrada Građevinskog odbora za period 1898-1914. godine koja se čuva u Muzeju grada Beograda. Ova arhiva nije tako velika i nije kompletna, ali smo u njoj našli dokumentaciju za trojicu Jevreja graditelja Beograda, Viktora Davida Azriela, Leona Talvija i Jovana Koena. Za period XIX veka građevinske arhive nisu sačuvane, ali se iz drugih izvora zna da je u Beogradu radilo dosta stranih građevinskih stručnjaka iz krajeva preko Save i Dunava. Da li je među njima bilo i Jevreja, za sada se ne može utvrditi. Za period između dva svetska rata sačuvana je kompletna obimna arhiva planova beogradskrh zgrada i ona se danas čuva u Istorijskom arhivu Beograda. Kao izvor o našoj temi nije se mogla mnogo koristiti jer je sređena hronološki i po ulicama. Što se tiče ostalih izvora koji su poslužili za obradu teme o beogradskim graditeljima Jevrejima treba istaći dokumentaciju u Jevrejskom istorijskom muzeju, a naročito memoare dr Davi...da Tajtacaka. I naše savremene enciklopedije pružile su dosta podataka za ovu temu, a zatim su značajni usmeni podaci rođaka i poznanika Jevreja graditelja. Na kraju možemo reći da je dosta pojedinačnih podataka nađeno u različitoj literaturi, u koju ubrajamo i razne popise i adresare (popis ovlašćenih inženjera iz 1940, popis diplomiramh inženjera u periodu ijzmeđu dva svetska rata). Za analizu arhitekture pojedinih objekata, autoru su služile same građevine kako danas izgledaju na licu mesta. Na osnovu svih ovih izvora, podaci za pojedine graditelje su obimniji i dovoljni, dok za druge to nisu. Zbog toga možemo reći da je poznavanje Jevreja graditelja Beograda do 1941. dosta neujednačeno i da nije bilo moguće govoriti o svakome od njih na isti način.
The (introduction are examined the sources and literature which are the foundation for this essay, with the conclusion that the knowledge of the life and work of Jews - builders of Belgrade until 1941 is very uneven. Albala, Josif worked in the period prior to World War Two; he projected apartment buildings in Belgrade and Niš. He has accepted contemporary architecture. Azriel, Isak - his biographical data is not known; he was active between the two world wars, was a registered civil engineer and always worked in collaboration with the architect Milan Manojlović. Azriel, Viktor David was the first Belgrade Jew who became a builder. He comes from the old Belgrade Jewish family. He worked as an architect during the first decade of this century. His most important building, the storehouse for Bencion Buli in 7. jula street, no. 16, is also an important achievement of Serbian architecture of that time; the edifice was built in the then-new style, art nouveau. Erlih, Hugo was the Zagreb... architect from the well-known family of builders; he graduated in Vienna and worked there for some time. Before World War I and between the wars he did most of his work in Zagreb whereas the chief executive of an architectonic studio he has designed a great number of public and apartment buildings. He was also the professor at the Architectural Faculty in Zagreb. He has projected Udružena banka (Consolidated Bank) in 7. jula street, no. 21. Koen, Jovan was the civil engineer whose nine projects for the smaller apartment buildings are in Muzej grada Beograd (Museum of the City of Belgrade). Besides being listed in the Belgrade Address Book for 1922 there are no other data on him. Levi, Isidor was the registered civil engineer about whose life we know nothing. Two of his apartment buildings that were made between the wars still exist; the bigger one, a collective apartment building has located the corner of Jevrejska and Visokog Stevana streets. Manojlović, Milan-Miša has graduated architecture in Belgrade. He and architect Isak Azriel had an architectonic studio and together have realized all Manojlovlć’s projects between the wars. Their most (important works are an apartment building in Kneza Miloša street, no. 69, Inženjerski dom (Civil Engineers House) in Kneza Miloša street, no. 7 and Gostioničarski dom (Publicans' House) in Jug Bogdanova street, no. 28. They designed in the contemporary architectural style. Mondšajn, Herman was the registered civil engineer who has worked on the construction and erection of buildings in Belgrade. The most important ones are Ministarstvo šuma i ruda (The Ministry of Forests and Ores) and Osiguravajude društvo "Jugoslavija" (Insurance Society "Yugoslavia"). Najman, Josif has graduated architecture in Belgrade after World War One and after that has more developed in Paris. After returning to Belgrade he opened the architectonic studio. He entered his projects in open competitions. His most important edifices are Zadužbina Nikole Spasića (The Bequest of Nikola Spasić) in Knez Mihajlova street, no. 47, Opštinska štedionica (The Communal Savings Bank) in Zeleni venac, no. 16, Državna markarnica (The State Printing House for Postal and Governmental Stamps) in Bulevar Vojvode Misića, no. 43 and Trgovačka akademija (Tradesmen Academy) in Cetinjska street, no. 5. Sumbul, Samuel has graduated architecture in Vienna. He came to Belgrade after World War One and had the architectonic and building enterprise. He was also a painter. His most important buildings are Savez jevrejskih opština (The Federation of Jewish Communities) in 7. jula street, no. 71a and Jevrejsko dobrotvorno društvo "Oneg Šabat" (Jewish Charitable Society "Oneg Šabat") in Jevrejska street, no. 16. Šlang, Milan was the son of rabbi Ignjat Šlang. He did not graduate at Architectural Faculty because of one examination but the projected Sinagoga aškenaskog obreda (The Synagogue of the Ashkenazic rite) in Maršala Birjuzova street, no 19 which still exists. Talvi, Leon has graduated in civil engineering in Switzerland. He worked in Belgrade and on the eve of World War Two emigrated to Israel. His most important building is the hotel "Palas" ("Palace"), Topličin venac street, no. 23, which is today an A category hotel. Vajsman, Ernest was the Croatian architect who has finished his schooling with Le Corbusier and had thus accepted modern architecture very early. His opus is not large and he has spent most of his life abroad. In Belgrade, he has projected Dom novinara (Journalists’ House), in General Ždanova street, no. 28. According to the presented material, we can conclude that among Jews - builders of Belgrade prior to 1941, the most relevant one was Josif Najman, as by the quality of his works so also by their quantity. Most of the other builders have designed both public and apartment buildings. Each of them has had one or two realized public edifices. The general characteristic of their style is that Jewish architects were building in the manner accepted in Belgrade of their time.
Keywords:Jevreji - graditelji / Jews - builders / Jevreji - arhitekte / Jews - architects / Josif Joška Albala (1902-1942) / Viktor David Azriel (1875-1942) / Erlih Hugo (1879-1936) / Jovan Koen (1880-?) / Isidor Levi (1890-?) / Milan-Miša Manojlović (1901-1942) / Herman Mondštajn (1886-1942) / Isak Azriel (1905-?) / Josif Najman (1894-1951) / Samuel Sumbul (1887-1947) / Milan Šlang (1900-?) / Leon Talvi (1880-1941?) / Ernest Vajsman (1903-1985)
Source:Zbornik 6 : Studije, arhivska i memoarska građa o istoriji beogradskih Jevreja, Jevrejski istorijski muzej - Beograd = Jewish studies 6 : Studies, archival and memorial materials about the history of the Jews in Belgrade, Jewish historical museum - Belgrade, 1992, 6, 216-244
- Beograd : Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije [Federation of Jewish Communitues in Jugoslavia]