Jevrejska groblja u Beogradu
Jewish cementeries in Belgrade
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Život jevrejskih zajednica u dijaspori bio je vekovima određen postojanjem izdvojene četvrti grada, geta, sinagoga i jevrejskog groblja, tri celine koje su predstavljale međe života zajednice, podređenog manje ili više verskim pravilima. U ovom radu, čija je tema vezana za jevrejska groblja na području Beograda od prvih zabeleženih naseljavanja Jevreja u ovaj grad do danas, pratićemo taj vid aktivnosti beogradske jevrejske zajednice. Jer mada su groblja povezana sa idejom smrti i nestajanja, posmatrana sa jednog istorijskog, pa i istorijsko-umetničkog gledišta, ona mogu pružiti dragocene podatke upravo o životu Ijudi, o određenom razdoblju njihovog delovanja.
The introductory part of this essay expounds on the historical origin of the Jewish cemeteries and the data on the types of tombstones. The symbols on the Ashkenazic and Sephardic tombstones are also described. By comparison of the XVII century plans of the Belgrade town and its fortress the oldest Jewish cemetery in Belgrade can be located on the bank of the Sava river; a few XVII century gravestones are still existent. There are conjectures that during the XVII century the impact of the great number of Sephardim who have settled in Belgrade has caused the transferring of the Jewish quarter onto the bank of the Danube river and thus the cemetery was also moved to that part of town. The third Jewish cemetery situated in Belgrade since the beginning of the XVII century is the Palilula Jewish cemetery and its existence can be followed in continuity since the town plans from 1668 till the thirties of the present century. In 1820 on this cemetery was held the ceremony of genizah, i.e. the... burial of the old Jewish books. The lot where the cemetery was situated was sold and the cemetery was relocated as part of the realization of The Belgrade General Plan. On July 1, 1928 on this cemetery was ceremoniously laid the founding stone for the mausoleum which was intended as the memorial above the crypt on the old cemetery's location. Although planned the monument above the crypt was never built. The lot in the Ruzvelt street where the Sephardic cemetery is located today was bought in 1888. Right on the other side of the same street is the Ashkenazic cemetery. Some older and more important grave markers have been transferred from the old Palilula cemetery. On the new Jewish cemetery are the gravestones relevant for their ornamental decorations, shape, and symbols; there are also some monuments designed by eminent sculptors like Petar Palavicini, Nandor Glid, and Aleksandar Zarin. On the cemetery are also the monuments commemorating the victims of the First and Second World Wars.
Keywords:jevrejsko groblje - Beograd / Jewish cementery - Belgrade
Source:Zbornik 6 : Studije, arhivska i memoarska građa o istoriji beogradskih Jevreja, Jevrejski istorijski muzej - Beograd = Jewish studies 6 : Studies, archival and memorial materials about the history of the Jews in Belgrade, Jewish historical museum - Belgrade, 1992, 6, 201-214
- Beograd : Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije [Federation of Jewish Communitues in Jugoslavia]