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Review of the history of the Jewish population of Belgrade up to the achievement of the civil equality

dc.creatorJovanović, Nebojša
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-07T21:53:25Z
dc.date.available2019-12-07T21:53:25Z
dc.date.issued1992
dc.identifier.issn0353-0612
dc.identifier.uri
dc.identifier.urihttp://jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/handle/123456789/148
dc.description.abstractJevrejske kolonije postojale su u Beogradu u već X veku (moguće i ranije), ali tek se u XIII i XIV veku jasno identifikovalo njihovo postojanje, sa organizovanom verskom zajednicom i čvrstim vezama sa Dubrovnikom, Venecijom, Ankonom i mađarskim gradovima. Nakon 1521. godine primećeno je intenzivnije naseljavanje Sefarda koji su doneli španski jezik i običaje i koji su se stopili sa Jevrejima koji su živeli na ovim prostorima. Sredinom XVII veka, posle epidemije kuge, zajednica se preselila sa obale Save na obale Dunava, na Jaliju, gde je ostala još tri veka. Kao i ostali Jevreji širom Evrope, zbog stalnih progona i zabrane posedovanja zemlje, beogradski Jevreje pretežno su se bavili trgovinom, bankarstvom i zanatstvom. Međutim, ekonomski napredak pojedinaca i jevrejske zajednice kao i samog grada, često je zavisio od velikih istorijskih događaja i mnogobrojnih osvajača i vladara. Iako je jevrejsko stanovništvo dobilo jednaka prava još pod turskim režimom, ipak je moralo podnositi tiraniju lokalnih gospodara, naročito kada se prikupljao novac za ratne svrhe. Posle izgona iz Španije i Portugala (1492. godine) veliki deo Jevreja Sefarada iz tih zemalja nastanio se na Balkanu. Takođe su se, za vreme izuzetno netolerantne austrijske okupacije (od 1717. do 1739. godine) i mnoge aškenaske porodice koje su došle iz centralnoevropskih gradova, naselile na ovim prostorima. Od tada, gotovo neprekidno, postoje dve jevrejske verske zajednice u Beogradu - sefardska i aškenaska. Zajednici na Jaliji ozbiljno je pretila Karađorđeva vojska 1806. godine, kada su Jevreji uvršteni u kategoriju nehrišćana koji žive u budućoj prestonici Srbije. Do 1813. godine kada su se Turci vratili na ove teritorije, u srpskim gradovima se malo spominju Jevreji. Za vreme vladavine kneza Miloša Obrenovića (1815-1839), jevrejska mahala u Beogradu ponovo je postala živo mesto. Doseljenici iz Sofije, Bitole i Bukurešta, kao i oni koji su bili u izbeglištvu, došli su ovde da žive. Osnivač „nove“ države imao je pozitivan odnos prema građanskim pravima pa tako se i prema Jevrejima odnosio kao prema Srbima. Obezbedio je uslove da najpismeniji i kulturniji sloj beogradskog stanovništva postane homogena etnička i konfesionalna grupa . Međutim, društvena struktura stanovnika Jalije bila je veoma različita: od prosjaka do bogatih obrtnika koji su već unapredili svoje poslovanje u gradu - u blizini „centra“ i ekonomski predstavljali najuticajniji faktor u državi. Od 1837. godine Knjaževska štamparija počela je štampati jevrejske knjige. Tokom godina kada su na vlasti bili Ustavobranitelji (1842-1858) koji su zastupali nacionalni program, poslovno nadmetanje u kome su učestvovali pripadnici etničkih grupa, zabranjeno je posebnom uredbom (1846). Knez Miloš je, nakon što je učvrstio svoju vladavinu 1859. godine, izdao Uredbu o jednakim pravima građana, ali posle njegove smrti 1869. godine, Jevreji su vodili dugu borbu za priznavanje svojih prava. Prvi korak ka definitivnom priznavanju jednakih prava učinio je Ustav iz 1869. godine, prema kojem su Jevreji bili obavezni da služe i u srpskoj vojsci. U proleće 1877. godine u parlamentu ih je zastupao poslanik koji je odlučivao o ratu i miru sa Turskom. Na Berlinskom kongresu 1878. godine Srbija je proglasila priznavanje nezavisnosti i pune konfesionalne slobode, političke i pravne jednakosti članovima bilo koje verske grupe. Formalno je to već bilo učinjeno Ustavom iz 1888. godine, iako se u političkom životu Srbije ispunjavao od 1878. godine. Obrazovani i stručni Jevreji učestvovali su u političkom i ekonomskom životu Srbije. Oni su bili članovi različitih političkih stranaka, poslanici i industrijalci koji su pomogli napredak različitih industrijskih grana. U balkanskim ratovima, ali i u Prvom svetskom ratu, to su bili vojnici (Srbi Mojsijeve vere) koji su pokazali veliki patriotizam i junaštvo na ratištima od Drine do Soluna. Proces priznavanja građanskih prava Jevrejima Srbije teče paralelno sa procesom sticanja nezavisnosti države i formiranja modernog, demokratskog društva. Od tada razlike između Jevreja i Srba vidljivo nestaju na obe strane. Jevreji su počeli da menjaju svoja porodična imena u usvojene srpske verzije istih (što je dovelo do svojevrsne asimilacije), a Srbi su izrazili zahvalnost na različite načine: neke beogradske ulice su dobile ime po uglednim Jevrejima; pojedincima i grupama dodeljene su nagrade, odlikovanja itd. Kralj Petar I prisustvovao je ceremoniji polaganja kamena temeljca za novu sinagogu 1907. i njenom otvaranju, što je upamćeno kao najviši izraz milosti evropskog vladara prema svojim jevrejskim podanicima. Tokom Drugog svetskog rata, Jevreji u Beogradu našli su utočište kod svojih prijatelja i komšija koji su pokušali umanjiti strahote Holokausta. Tradicionalno prijateljstvo ova dva naroda i danas se poštuje.sr
dc.description.abstractJewish colonies existed in Belgrade in the 10th century (or earlier), but it was only in the 13th and 14th centuries when its existence became clearly identified, with an organized religious community and tight connections with Dubrovnik, Venice, Ancona, and Hungarian cities. After 1521 a more intensive settling of Shepherds is observed who brought the Spanish language and customs which were then put upon the Jews living here. In the middle of the 17th century, after the plague epidemic, the community moved from the Sava bank to the banks of the Danube, to Jalija, where it remained for further three centuries. As the Jews throughout Europe, because of the constant persecution and bans to owe lands, the Belgrade Jewry was predominantly tradesmen, bankers, and manufacturers. The economic progress of individuals and of the whole community was often disturbed by the great commotion, as the city itself, which changed rulers many times. Although their equal rights were granted tinder the Turkish regime, the Jewish population had to endure the tyranny of local masters, especially When produce delivery and money for war purposes were collected. Under the Austrian occupation from 1717 till 1739 the Jesuits were extremely intolerant, and many Spanish families moved from here, and instead of Ashkenazi’s came from Central European cities. Since then, almost uninterrupted, there are two Jewish religious communities in Belgrade; the Sephardic and the Ashkenazi. The community on Jalija was severely threatened by Karadjordje's army in 1806 when Jews were included in the category of non-Christians living in the future capital of Serbia. Till 1813 when the Turks came back to these territories there is little mention of Jews in Serbian cities. During the reign of Prince Miloš Obrenović (1815-1839), the Jewish mahalla in Belgrade again became a lively place as settlers from Sophia, Bitola, and Bucuresti came here to live, and of course, those who returned from exile. Among them, there were a great number of those from Zemun, although in the meantime they had established a new Sephardic community and formed good living conditions. The founder of the new state has a just relation towards the Jews and in civil relations, he treated them with equal rights as the Serbs, he provided the conditions for the most literate and cultural layer of Belgrade population to remain a homogenous ethnic and confessional group. However, the social structure of the inhabitants of Jalija was very disparate: from beggars to wealthy tradesmen who have already promoted their businesses to a place near the "center" and economically represented the most influential factor of the State. Since 1837 the Prince’s press began to print Jewish books. During the years when Ustavobranitelji (1842-1858) was in power, who offered a national program, the business competition, of members of ethnic groups was suppressed, and by a special decree (1846) the Jews were forbidden to live in the country. It was then when a great number of Jews fled from Serbia. Prince Milos, after he reinforced his reign in 1859 issued a Decree on equal rights of citizens, but after his death in 1869, the Jews had a long struggle for recognition of their rights. The first step towards the definite recognition of equal rights was made by the 1869 Constitution according to which (paragraph 35) the Jews were also obliged to serve in the Serbian army. In the spring of 1877, they were represented by a deputy in the Parliament which decided about war and peace with Turkey. At the Berlin Congress in 1878 Serbia declared (paragraph XXXV) recognition of independence and full confessional freedom, political and legal equality to members of any religious group. Formally it was already done by the 1888 Constitution, although in the political life of Serbia it was fulfilled since 1878. Educated and skilled Jews took part in the political and economic life of Serbia. They were members of different political parties, deputies, and industrialists who helped the progress of different industrial branches. In the Balkan Wars and also in World War I, they were soldiers (Serbs of Moses’ faith) who showed great patriotism and heroism on the battlefields from the Drina to Thessaloniki. The process of recognition of civil rights to Jews in Serbia runs parallel with the process of obtaining the independence of the state and formation of a modern, democratic society. Since then the differences between Jews and Serbs are visibly disappearing on both sides. Jews began to change their family names into adopted Serbian versions of them (which led to a kind of assimilation) and Serbs expressed their gratitude in different ways: some Belgrade streets were named after eminent Jews (it was in 1872 when first Belgrade streets were named), individuals and groups were awarded prizes, decorations, etc. King Petar I attended the ceremony of laying the foundation stone for the new synagogue in 1907 and was opened, which was remembered as the highest expression of the mercy of a European ruler towards his Jewish subjects. During World War II the Jews of Belgrade found shelter with their friends and neighbors who tried to mitigate the horrors of the Holocaust. The traditional friendship of the two people has many proofs in the present times as well.en
dc.language.isosrsr
dc.publisherBeograd : Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije [Federation of Jewish Communitues in Jugoslavia]sr
dc.rightsopenAccesssr
dc.sourceZbornik 6 : Studije, arhivska i memoarska građa o istoriji beogradskih Jevreja, Jevrejski istorijski muzej - Beograd = Jewish studies 6 : Studies, archival and memorial materials about the history of the Jews in Belgrade, Jewish historical museum - Belgradesr
dc.subjectJevreji Beograda - istorijasr
dc.subjectBelgrade Jews - historysr
dc.subjectJevreji - građanska prava (Srbija)sr
dc.subjectJews - civil equality (Serbia)sr
dc.subjectAvram M. Ozerović ( 1848-1916)sr
dc.subjectEdi Buli (1834-1907)sr
dc.subjectBencion Buli ( 1867-1933)sr
dc.subjectHenri Buli (1885-1948)sr
dc.subjectŠemaja Demajo (1877-1932)sr
dc.subjectHajim S. Davičo (1854-1918)sr
dc.subjectLeon Koen (1859-1934)sr
dc.subjectGeca Kon (1873-1941)sr
dc.subjectPavle Bilhalji (1898-1941)sr
dc.subjectOlga Alkalaj (1907-1942)sr
dc.subjectBeža Albahari (?-1942)sr
dc.subjectPavle Pap (1914-1941)sr
dc.subjectIsidor E. Baruh (1910-1941)sr
dc.subjectBora Baruh (1911-1942)sr
dc.subjectJosif Joži Baruh (1913-1941)sr
dc.subjectRašela Baruh (?-1941)sr
dc.subjectBerta-Bela Baruh (?-1943)sr
dc.subjectBulina Baruh (?-1959)sr
dc.subjectRafailo Finc (1870-1936)sr
dc.subjectJakov M. Alkalaj (1843-1896)sr
dc.subjectMoše Mevorah (1824-1901)sr
dc.subjectJakov Mevorah (1855-1940)sr
dc.subjectHugo Buli (1875-1941)sr
dc.subjectDavid Buli ( 1844-1907)sr
dc.subjectNeti Munk (1865-1924)sr
dc.subjectMoša Pijade (1890-1957)sr
dc.titlePregled istorije beogradskih Jevreja do sticanja građanske ravnopravnostisr
dc.titleReview of the history of the Jewish population of Belgrade up to the achievement of the civil equalityen
dc.typearticlesr
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-NDsr
dcterms.abstractЈовановић, Небојша; Преглед историје београдских Јевреја до стицања грађанске равноправности; Преглед историје београдских Јевреја до стицања грађанске равноправности;
dc.rights.holderSavez jevrejskih opština Srbije = Federation of Jewish Communities of Serbiasr
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://jevrejskadigitalnabiblioteka.rs/bitstream/id/274/JIM0602NEBOJSAJOVANOVICPREGLEDISTORIJEBEOGRADSKIHJEVREJA.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionsr
dc.citation.spage115
dc.citation.epage167
dc.citation.issue6
dc.identifier.cobiss


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