Jevreji u Srbiji: narodni poslanici Jevreji u Skupštini Srbije 1878-1888.
Jews in Serbia: Jews - Members of Parliament - in the Serbian National Assembly 1878-1888
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Zakonom proklamovana i obezbeđena potpuna ravnopravnost Jevreja u Srbiji zagarantovana je prema odredbi kojom je uslovljeno priznanje državne nezavisnosti Srbije na Berlinskom kongresu 1878. godine. Odredba je sadržana u ugovoru koji su na mirovnoj konferenciji u Berlinu 13. jula 1878. sačinili i potpisali predstavnici Nemačke, Austro-Ugarske, Francuske, Velike Britanije, Italije, Rusije i Turske. Isključivo predstavnici velikih sila! Kao što najčešće biva kad su u pitanju novi status i nove granice malih država, u ovom slučaju Srbije, i to posle njenog pobedničkog rata protiv Turske 1877. godine. Prema odredbi Člana 35 Berlinskog ugovora: "U Srbiji razlike u veri i veroispovesti" - podrazumevajući tada u ovoj determinanti i razlike po nacionalnoj i rasnoj pripadnosti - nisu više mogle biti korišćene u argumentaciji "razloga da neko bude isključen ili sprečen da uživa svoja građanska i politička prava, da ne bude primljen u javne službe, na položaje, i da mu se ne ukazuju počasti, ili... da ne obavlja razne zanate i zanimanja ma u kome mestu to bilo". Navedena odredba smatrana je za odrednicu novih međunarodnih društveniih odnosa u duhu emancipatorskog buržoaskog građanskog liberalizma, koji je 70-ih godina XIX veka dominirao u Evropi, shodno stavovima vladajućih liberalnih stranaka u većini evropskih država. U pitanju Jevreja, rešenje ovom odredbom se eksplicitnije nametalo posebno zahtevima uticajne Izraelitske alijanse (L’ Alliance Israelite Universelle) sa sedištem u Parizu. Na toj odredbi je na Berlinskom kongresu najdoslednije insistirao predstavnik Francuske, koji je tražio da se ona formuliše kao uslov za sticanje i priznanje nezavisnosti navedenih balkanskih država. Posle različitih mišljenja u diskusiji, ovu odredbu su na kraju rasprave u celini jednoglasno prihvatili svi učesnici na Berlinskom kongresu. U toku izjašnjavanja, sa njom se saglasio predstavnik Srbije Jovan Ristić i iz ubeđenja kao liberal evropskog formata i kao opunomoćenik prosvećenog vladara Srbije, kneza MiIana Obrenovlća. Prilikom odlučivanja u vezi sa pitanjem ravnopravnosti Jevreja u Srbiji, u najvećoj meri su korišćeni argumenti memoranduma Izraelitske alijanse. U njemu su bile navedene i reči kneza Mihaila, ranijeg vladara Srbije, kojima se on svojevremeno distancirao od izvesnih zakonskih ograničenja u pravima Jevreja, posebno u oblasti trgovine. Na tim ograničenjima je istrajala Narodna skupštlna pod dominantnim uticajem seoskih i palanačkih trgovaca. Prema navedenim Mihailovim rečima, oni su bili protiv Jevreja u trgovini "kao protiv svojih konkurenata, koji bolju robu prodaju jeftinije od njih".
These treaties are first expounded and analyzed the conditions which brought about the election of the first Jewish Members of Parliament for the Serbian National Assembly; after that is presented and analyzed their work in that House of Representatives of Serbian state and Serbian people. The conditions which have permitted the previously inconceivable participation of Jews in the proceedings of the highest Serbian legislative institution were prepared by the Serbian wars for liberation 1876-1877 and by the recognition of the Serbian independent state by the decisions of the Congress of Berlin in 1678. On the Congress of Berlin, the international recognition of the independent Serbian state was conditioned by the Acceptance of the complete Jewish equality in Serbia through canceling all previous restrictions. In legislation, they were prohibited to live and open commercial shops in the country’s interior, while in practice the restrictions were carried out through obstructions imposed... on their schooling and by the prohibition of Jewish employment in the state institutions. The first M.P. of the Mosaic faith was the respected Belgrade merchant Avram Ozerović. He was elected in 1877 as the honorary candidate for the then ruling Liberal Party in the elections for the Great National Assembly constituted after the First Serbo-Turkish war. By his election, the Liberal Party has proven its broad-mindedness in the vein of European liberalism, and through that the additional claim for the support of liberal Europe in the further Serbian struggle against Turkey. After the second victorious war for liberation from Turkish sovereignty, Jovan Ristic, the Serbian representative on The Berlin Congress, had by accepting the provisions of the peace conference proven the alacrity of the Serbian government to recognize all rights of its Jewish subjects in correspondence to the citizen’s rights of Serbian subjects. According to these constitutional and legal provisions, since the courting to the power of Milos Obrenović, after gaining the Serbian citizenship Jews were treated as the citizens of Serbia of Mosaic faith. Through the identification of nationality by the (identity of citizenship the Jewish inhabitants of Serbia were considered Serbs of Mosaic denomination. Their religious rights were never restricted, while the political rights expressed in the elective rights for representative and legislative bodies had obliged them to serve out the compulsory military service that was guaranteed by the constitution of 1869. They were thus given the possibility to prove their patriotism for the first time in the liberation wars against Turkey from 1876-1877. In this essay are published the names of Jews honored with wartime and peacetime decorations, the names of numerous Jewish physicians who have contributed to the improvement of medical service in Serbia and the names of the first civil engineers and state officials. Following the careers of the two prominent personalities of Jewish origin, Vukašin Petrović (Schauengel) and Hajim S. Davičo, the author have pointed out the (identification by name, surname, and faith. Vukašin has reached, thanks to his parents’ exchanging of Jewish surname and faith of their ancestors for the Serbian surname and Serbian Eastern Orthodox religion, high positions in parliamentary and ministerial hierarchy, while the other, Hajim, remaining recognizable as Jew by name, surname, and religion had to be satisfied by the moderate career of a civil servant. The anti-Semitic prejudices could not be ousted by any laws or sermons, either then or later, even in the more emancipated segments of Serbian society, not to mention the general population. This atavistic anomaly of mankind in the Serbian environment of that time is treated with particular consideration. The regular election of Jewish Members of Parliament was held when Progressive Party was in power. During its seven years rule from 1880 till 1887 for Jews were kept two permanent seats in Parliament. These two seats were for Avram Ozerović and Edi Buli, who were among the rich and respected Belgrade merchants. However, they did not become members of Parliament by regular elections but by the choice of the ruler, Milan Obrenović, although in their rights and capacities they had the same status as those Members of Parliament who were elected at the polls by the people or their delegates. The Serbian National Assembly was structured, by the Constitution of 1869 until The Constitution of 1888, as a composite body of equal members although three quarters were regularly elected, while one quarter were appointed. The choice of the appointed members of Parliament depended only on the ruler and the government. The ruler, Milan Obrenović, and the government of Progressive Party were free of the anti-Semitic prejudices and had thus stuck to their choice of the two Jewish M.P.-s, appreciating their competence and contribution for the development of Serbian state and Serbian society. By large excepts of the MwP.,s’ speeches and in the account of their actions, particularly those of M.P. Avram Ozerović, this study shows how the Jewish delegates have justified the ruler’s and government’s trust by their exceptional contributions in the legislative field arid particularly in the economic sphere of general development of Serbian state and society.
Keywords:Jevreji - narodni poslanici (Srbija 1878-1888) / Jews - members of Parliament (Serbia 1878-1888) / Jevreji - zakoni (Srbija) / Jews - legislation (Serbia) / Avram Ozerović / Edi Buli / Milan Obrenović, vladar - Jevreji / Milan Obrenović, ruler - Jews / Berlinski kongres (1878) / Congress of Berlin (1878) / Hajim Davičo (1854-1918) / Jevreji - Građanski zakonik za Kraljevinu Srbiju / Vukašin J. Petrović, ministar finansija i političar (1847-1924) / Jevreji - antisemitizam (Srbija) / Jews - antisemitism (Serbia)
Source:Zbornik 6 : Studije, arhivska i memoarska građa o istoriji beogradskih Jevreja, Jevrejski istorijski muzej - Beograd = Jewish studies 6 : Studies, archival and memorial materials about the history of the Jews in Belgrade, Jewish historical museum - Belgrade, 1992, 6, 1-114
- Beograd : Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije [Federation of Jewish Communitues in Jugoslavia]
- Vukašin J. Petrović, ministar finansija i političar bio je jevrejskog porekla, unuk Josifa Šlezingera prvog srpskog kapelnika Knjaževske garde i Sare Fridenberg ćerke Jakoba Fridenberga, zemunskog nadrabina.
- Str. 113: Genealoško stablo Josifa Šlezingera i njegovih potomaka.
ISSN: 0353-0612[ Google Scholar ]
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