Fond starih hebrejskih štampanih knjiga u Jevrejskom istorijskom muzeju u Beogradu
Old printed Hebrew books in the holdings of the Belgrade Jewish Historical Museum
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Stare hebrejske štampane knjige koje se čuvaju u Jevrejskom istorijskom muzeju u Beogradu, a kojih ima oko tri stotine, mogu se po starosti i značaju podeliti u nekoliko grupa. Prvu grupu čine knjige na hebrejskom, štampane od XVI do kraja XIX veka. To su pretežno verske knjige, a posebnu važnost imaju one koje daju podatke o životu i običajima Jevreja na teritoriji današnje Jugoslavije. Drugu grupu čine knjige koje se od sredine XIX veka javljaju kao plod rada jevrejskih zajednica u Jugoslaviji. To su statuti jevrejskih opština i dobrotvornih ustanova, štampani na jezicima koji su bili u upotrebi u tim jevrejskim opštinama. Jedan od najstarijih je statut zagrebačkog društva Hevra Kadiša ("Sveto društvo") iz 1859. godine, štampan (kao i program gradnje zagrebačke sinagoge iz 1861. nodine) u Štampariji Ljudevita Gaja, na nemačkom, goticom. Veoma je značajan Statut Jevrejske sefardske opštine iz Zemuna, štampan u Beogradu 1876. godine u Štampariji N. Stefanovića i druga na hebrejskom, Ra...ši pismom. Ostali statuti su sa početka XX veka. Među njima se izdvaja lepom secesionističkom opremom Statut sarajevske jevrejske opštine, štampan u Štampariji Buhwald B. i drug 1908. godine. Treću grupu čine knjige nа srpskohrvatskom odnosno hrvatskosrpskom jeziku. Nastale su u prvoj polovini XX veka (do 1941. godine) a zajedničko im je to da je u njima obiavljena bogata građa za istoriju Jevreja u Jugoslaviji. Budući da su za vreme Drugog svetskog rata uništene jevrejske biblioteke u kojima su ovakve knjige uglavnom čuvane, danas su ove knjige prava retkost a zbog podataka koje sadrže veoma su vredne. Najčešći oblik ovih knjiga su takozvane spomenice, pripremane povodom značajnih datuma. Takvim knjigama obeležavane su godišnjice izgradnje sinagoga, stvaranja kulturno-umetničkih društava, godišnjice osnivanja opština, ili obeležavanja godišnjica rođenja neke značajne ličnosti. U nekim opštinama objavljivane su monografije ili istorije. Najznačajnija od tih knjiga je "Die Sephardim in Bosnien" (Sefardi u Bosni) dr Morica Levija, štampana u Sarajevu 1911. godine.
In the holdings of the Jewish Historical Museum in Belgrade, there are about 300 old printed books. Hebrew books form the greatest group but old statutes of Jewish communities and of various Jevvish humanitarian institutions are well represented, too. These statutes are written in languages used by the respective Jewish communities in German, Hungarian, Ladino, Hebrew, Serbian and Croatian. Most of these statutes were enacted somewhere between the second part of the 19th century and the third decade of the 20th century. The third group is made up of books in Serbian and Croatian languages which were printed somewhere during the first decades of the 20th century. They are mostly commemorative volumes, history books, textbooks and fictions. Some of these books were designed by Daniel Ozmo from Sarajevo or Slavko Bril from Zagreb, the two renowned Yugoslav artists of Jewish origin. In the holdings of the Jewish Historical Museum, the following books are the most valuable ones: Shulhan Aru...kh printed 1609 in Venice. This book was translated into Spanish and printed in Latin letters for the benefit of Marranos. The book Manot Halevi written by- kabetz, the well-known student of the Cabala was printed 1584 in Venice. Valuable are also the books Flavii Josephi Operum, printed 1595 in Latin letters and Lexicon Hebraicum et Haldaicum printed 1606 in Basel. For the history of Yugoslav Jews of greater importance are those books which have some relation with the cities in which they lived. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Yugoslav Jews printed their books in big European cities in which Jewish printing shops were available. The oldest such books come from the Split Jewish Community. In 1699 the book Pizmon (songs of the Simchat Torah holiday) was printed in Venice. The book Seder Avodat Yom Hakippurim (schedule of services for Yom Kippur according to the tradition of the holy the community of Split) was printed 1746 in Venice. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Yugoslav Jews printed their books in Vienna, Buda, Salonica and Livorno. In the forewords of these books (a few of which аrе in the holdings of the Belgrad Jewish Historical Museum), one often comes across lists of subscribers or of those who made possible the printing of those books. In 1832 the "Prince's Printing Shop" started to operate in Belgrade and from 1837 this Serbianshop was already equipped to print Hebrew books. In the second part of the 19th century, Hebrew books could be printed in some other printing shops, too. In a paper published in Jewish Almanac for the уеаr 1925, Dr Isak Alkalaj wrote about these old Hebrew books printed in Belgrade. He listed 54 books printed in Serbia from 1837 until 1904. The Jewish Historical Museum in Belgrade succeeded to lay hand on ten of these books, the rest disappeared and has fallen by now into oblivion. These books were not very voluminous and related mostly to certain ' domestic or synagogal rites. Most of these books were translated into Ladino or had forward in Ladino. They were printed in Hebrew square or Rashi letters. Ву the end of the 19th or the beginning of the 20th century Hebrew was hardly аnу more the language of the Belgrade Jews as they used those days predominantly the Serbo-Croatian language. Consequently, the printing of Hebrew books was discontinued although such facilities were available until WWII. In Sarajevo, it was in 1866 when a printing shop in which Hebrew books could be printed started to operate. In this shop, only a few such books were printed. Of far greater importance for the Sarajevo Jews was Daniel Kajon's printing shop which was started in 1892, as well as Menahem Papo's printing shop which was started in 1919. In these two printing shops, books were printed in Hebrew and Ladino, but in other languages in use in Bosnia and Herzegovina, too. In Croatia and Vojvodina, there were several printing shops with facilities for printing books in Hebrew. Out of the preserved books printed until the end of the 19th century, most are in German and Hungarian with only some specific words in Hebrew. During WWII the Nazis destroyed in Yugoslavia all the Jewish printing shops.
Keywords:Jevreji - pisani dokumenti / Jews - written sources / Jevreji - kulturna istorija (Jugoslavija) / Jews - cultural history (Yugoslavia)
Source:Jezik, pismo i knjiga Jevreja Jugoslavije : izložba, 1979, 39-50
- Beograd : Jevrejski istorijski muzej Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije