Jevrejski intelektualci i studentska omladina među prvim žrtvama masovnih egzekucija u NDH
Jewish Intellectuals and Students among the First Victims of Mass Executions
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Tekst se bavi nacionalnom i kulturnom politikom Nezavisne Države Hrvatske i beleži prve žrtve Holokausta na prostorima bivše Jugoslavije. Govori o arijanizaciji kulture u NDH i njenim posledicama na jevrejsku zajednicu na teritoriji države. Arijanizacija u hrvatskoj kulturi i ugao pod kojim će se gledati ostvarenje ideje o "zdravom narodnom kolektivu" bili su posledica vezivanja za ideologiju Trećeg rajha. Zdrava nacija se mogla izgraditi tako što bi se fizički uništili unutrašnji i spoljašnji neprijatelji koji "truju" hrvatsku naciju. Prvi koraci u izvršenju "čišćenja" nacije bili su uništenje kulturne elite i omladine "neprijatelja hrvatske nacije". Naročito mesto je posvećeno žrtvama Holokausta iz redova jevrejskih intelektualaca, studenata i omladine koji su stradali u logoru Jadovno.
The creation of the Independent State of Croatia has roots in the changes of the world map instigated by its "mentor" the Third Reich. Historically and legally, the creation of this state was not based on defined legal principals, and consequently, in historiography, this state is called "a puppet state". The political and organizational form of the Independent State of Croatia (ISC) did not have legitimacy and effective authority. The Independent State of Croatia was founded on a national basis. A pattern and a principle were established for defining a desirable nation in the new NDH (ISC) state. Explicit nationalism and decisive racism were the basis of domestic policy. Such an ideology, popularly named "national community ideology", propagated both by the Croatian political leadership and Catholic clergy, demanded racial and national purity and unity. The healthy nation could be raised only by physical destruction of internal and external enemies who were "poisoning" the Croatian ...nation. The most dangerous for the Croatian nation were its internal and external enemies: the Serbs, the Jews, intellectuals, communists. The readiness of NDH (ISC) to consistently and cooperatively carry out, within its territories, all stipulations of the "racial law" had deeper roots, which reached into the projected aspects of the reestablishment of the real origin of the Croatian nation. The new political elite spoke of the Croats as being a nation of Gothic, and not of Slavic, origin from ancient times. Accepting the facts of the German origin of the Croatian peoples, to which he himself belonged, Pavelić carried out all facts and entire policy in the state following everything that was being done in the Third Reich. The domestic policy was based on explicit nationalism and decisive racism. The Aryanization process of the cultural environment was accelerated following the example of the Third Reich, and the process of creating a "clean and healthy nation" started with the arrest and subsequent liquidation of Jewish intellectuals, students and young people in Zagreb, as the first goal was to eliminate the representatives of the Jewish cultural elite from the territory of Independent State of Croatia. The Gospić group of camps and camp Jadovno, founded at the very beginning of the formation of the Independent State of Croatia as the first camps for the destruction of "elements poisoning the Croatian nation" were places where Jewish pupils, students and intellectuals were taken at the start of mass executions. Beside the intellectuals who were the most productive force in national culture, the arrest and later liquidation of Jewish student and youth in Zagreb are particularly indicative. It was a specially heavy blow because the aim was to completely destroy representatives of the Jewish cultural elite within the territory of the Independent State of Croatia.
Keywords:Nezavisna Država Hrvatska (NDH) - Jevreji / Independent State of Croatia (ISC) - Jews / genocid - 20. vek / Genocide - 20th century / Holokaust - Jugoslavija / jevrejski intelektualci / Jewish intellectuals / jevrejski studenti / Jewish students
Source:2013, 1, 117-133
- Beograd : Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije
- Tradition and Transformation: Historical Heritage and National Identity in Serbia in the 20th Century (RS-47019)
ISSN: 0354-6497; 2560-547X[ Google Scholar ]