Iz istorije novosadskih Jevreja
Contribution to the history of the Novi Sad Jews
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Tridesetih godina XX veka, deca su se još igrala u ritovima obraslim trskom i šašom na mestu gde je sada najnoviji deo modernog Novog Sada. Bili su to u stvari poslednji ostaci baruština na kojima je, za istoričare, ne tako davno nastalo naselje koje danas zovemo Novi Sad, glavni grad SAP Vojvodine. Ako se zapitamo šta je na tom mestu i šta je u toj pokrajini bilo na početku XVIII veka, dobićemo čudnu sliku. Nasuprot uglavnom privredno raznovrsno razvijenim austrijskim zemljama pružala se opustela Mađarska s jedva 28 stanovnika na kvadratnom kilometru, a na jugu se prostirala današnja Vojvodina, s još manjim brojem stanovnika. Tako su oko 1720. godine u Banatu živela 2-3, a u Bačkoj 3-5 žltelja na kvadratnom kilometru. Po izgonu Turaka iz tih krajeva napustilo ih je stanovništvo muslimanske vere; ostali su gotovo isključivo Srbi, s nešto južnoslovenskih etničkih grupa katoličke vere. Vojvođanska ravnica koju prosecaju dve velike tipično dolinske reke, Dunav i Tisa, a sa juga je dotiče ...i Sava, često je bila plavljena. Posle poplava ostajale su bare, močvare i legla komaraca. Neki uzdignutiji delovi južne Bačke, tzv. "grede" su prve i bile naseljene. Na tom tako pustom prostoru živeli su i Jevreji još pre povlačenja Turaka, jer je prema podacima koji do nas dopiru, jedan od razloga što su Jevreji stekli kod austrijskih vlasti status politički nepouzdanog elementa u oslobođenim krajevima bio i taj što su Jevreji u ratu bili uz Turke koji su im u svom carstvu osiguravali relativno bezbedan život.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Vojvodina was a scarcely populated region due mostly to frequent floods and Its swampy areas. After the withdrawal of the Turks, the majority of the population was Serbian living in the region side by side with numerous groups of various nationalities and religions. Novi Sad, or Serbian Town (Rätzenstadt or Reitzen-Stadtel) as it was originally called, was founded in 1694. It was actually a settlement established by the Austrian military authorities to serve as a bridgehead against any possible Turkish attack. According to the documents preserved at least one Jew has moved from Petrovaradin to Reitzendötfl at the end of the 17th century. The oldest document on Novi Sad Jews is a communication from the Pressburg Council of Deputies dated July 19, 1727 and addressed to Backa Country Administration pointing to the incompleteness of data on Jews. From the 1736 register of house owners, it appears that fifteen Jewish families lived in Novi Sad in tha...t year, while other documents indicate that the number in 1744 was already twenty-six. They had their own judge, rabbi, and teacher. The 1746 census of the "entire Jewish community” shows that the community had 144 members, that the community members had to pay various taxes and duties and, also, that many families were poor. Those days they already had their own synagogue. The Hirschl family, which was one of the richest families in Novi Sad, and some other families supported the Magistrate and the Tzarist authorities. This was the root of the conflict within the Jewish community which lasted for years at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century. In it, the rich Jews were on the one side while the “unelegant and uncultured” ones, lead by Joseph Deutsch, on the other side. During the 1848 revolutionary year, Novi Sad was exposed to bombardment and as a consequence, the synagogue was hit, while the Jewish population decreased from 1,320 to only 60 community members. Both the synagogue and the school were rebuilt already in 1849. After the revolution, the Jews were granted full equality in the new Austro-Hungarian monarchy and thereby all the avenues were open for their rapid economic and social progress. This was also the time of the Magyarization and assimilation of the Novi Sad Jews. The new synagogue was a neologian one, the strict religious rules were not so meticulously adhered to anymore, as was the case with the rules making mandatory the kosher food. And yet, the newly built Jewish school stood in witness of the fact the Jewish national consciousness remained maintained. During the 20th century, the Novi Sad Jews enjoyed full religious freedom. They had their own sports club, their societies and youth organizations, their choir and they also published a paper. During the economic crises, many Jewish families from the neighboring villages and townships settled in the city which influx necessitated the founding of a separate Orthodox community.
Keywords:Jevreji - Novi Sad (17-20. vek) / Jews - Novi Sad (17th-20th century)
Source:Zbornik 4 : Studije, arhivska i memoarska građa o Jevrejima Jugoslavije, Jevrejski istorijski muzej - Beograd = Jewish studies 4 : Studies, archival and memorial materials about the Jews in Jugoslavia, Jewish historical museum - Belgrade, 1979, 4, 57-64
- Beograd : Savez jevrejskih opština Jugoslavije [Federation of Jewish Communitues in Jugoslavia]